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Dental plaque (a film of bacteria that forms on your teeth) is known to be the main cause of periodontal (gum) disease. When the bacteria settle on your teeth, they form a whitish film called biofilm. Those that are not removed cause formation of “pockets,” areas of separation between the teeth and their surrounding gums, in which plaque hardens into deposits known as calculus or tartar.
The purpose of having your teeth cleaned regularly by a trained professional to remove deposits of plaque and calculus. Removal of hard deposits on your teeth is called “scaling.” This can be done either by using ultrasonic power scalers.